ARSA’s Klein Hails FAA Bill as “Historic Victory”
Jan. 1, 2019 Update: Since the FAA Bill’s passage, ARSA has been dissecting each section of the final law that will have some impact on the aviation maintenance community. To review the association’s matrix of relevant sections, including its assessment of priority, click here. If you would like to discuss specific issue areas, assist with prioritization or get involved with the process of implementing the law, click here to contact ARSA.
ARSA Executive Vice President Christian A. Klein released the following statement in the wake of Senate passage of the FAA reauthorization bill (H.R. 302 as amended) on Oct. 3 by a vote of 93 to 6. The bill, which overwhelmingly passed the House on Sep. 26, was quickly signed by President Trump.
The FAA bill includes a new Department of Transportation-administered grant program (Sec. 625) authorized at $5 million for five years to support aviation maintenance technical workforce development. ARSA proposed the program and led a coalition of more than 35 organizations representing all segments of the aviation industry to help secure its inclusion in the bill. The themes ARSA and its allies conveyed about aviation industry workforce challenges resonated so strongly on Capitol Hill that the final FAA bill includes an entire workforce title.
“The FAA reauthorization bill is an historic achievement for Congress, ARSA and the whole aviation industry. It restores long-term budget certainty for FAA safety oversight and infrastructure programs and puts the agency on the path to more-effectively regulate a growing industry.
“Just as importantly, it’s a major piece of workforce legislation. We’re extremely proud the bill includes the aviation maintenance technician grant program championed by an ARSA-led coalition of more than 35 aviation organizations. We thank Sens. Jim Inhofe [R-Okla.], Richard Blumenthal [D-Conn.], Jerry Moran [R-Kan.] and Maria Cantwell [D-Wash.] and Reps. Sam Graves [R-Mo.], Dan Lipinski [D-Ill], Markwayne Mullin [R-Okla.] and Brenda Lawrence [D-Mich.] for leading the charge and ensuring the grant program was included in the final FAA bill. The bill’s workforce title also includes important reforms to improve mechanic training and other initiatives to encourage more Americans to pursue aviation careers.
“We won the war; now we have to win the peace. With reauthorization behind us, it’s incumbent upon ARSA, its members and allies to work with FAA and the Department of Transportation to make the workforce initiatives successful. We will also continue to engage on Capitol Hill to ensure Congress appropriates money for the grant program to help attract and train the next generation of aviation maintenance workers.
“Thanks to all the maintenance industry leaders around the country who took the time to contact Congress and who came to Washington, D.C. to be part of the process. Give yourselves a pat on the back for helping make the wheels of government turn in the right direction for your employees, coworkers, company and industry.”
Previous Reauthorization Updates...
September 24, 2018
On Sept. 22, leadership of the Senate Commerce and House Transportation & Infrastructure Committees released the “final” version of the pre-negotiated FAA reauthorization bill. In a message to association members, Christian A. Klein, ARSA executive vice president and the association’s chief lobbyist, hailed the legislation as “a big win for ARSA and the aviation maintenance community.”
The bill includes a number of ARSA proposals. Most noteworthy is a new $5 million per-year grant program to help attract and train the next generation of aviation technicians. The association led a coalition of more than 35 industry associations and corporations to develop the legislative language creating the program and then lobby hard to ensure its inclusion in the bill. In the end, an entire workforce title was added to the legislation that, among other things, directs improvements to part 147, demands workforce-related Government Accountability Office reports and establishes new boards and commissions.
The FAA bill does not include hostile language directed at repair stations and includes maintenance interests on a number of panels and boards created by the bill. In his message to members, Klein noted how such inclusion has previously been hard won and the absence of anti-contract maintenance policy riders was a first in recent memory.
“Thanks to everyone who participated in ARSA’s reauthorization campaign over the past year and half – whether by attending Legislative Day, sending emails to congressional offices, participating in lobbying visits, hosting lawmakers at your companies or recruiting new allies to our efforts,” Klein said. “You made a big difference and help make the wheels of government move in the right direction for your company and industry. Give yourself a pat on the back for a job well done!”
The House and Senate are likely to vote on the bill in the coming week and quickly send it to the president for his signature.
ARSA is still reviewing the bill in detail and will provide a more thorough analysis in the days ahead (keep an eye out for the next edition of the hotline).
August 15, 2018
On Aug. 15, ARSA joined 32 other industry organizations in delivering a letter to Senate leadership urging quick FAA reauthorization action.
The Senate FAA bill (S. 1405) is on the move after the process had been stalled in the upper chamber for more than a year. The legislation would set the agency’s budget for at least the next three years and includes important aviation policy directives sought by ARSA.
“It is essential that the FAA is provided long-term authorization for its activities and programs to maintain and advance the safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world,” the letter said. “The U.S. aviation sector supports nearly 11 million jobs and contributes $1.6 trillion in economic activity. The aerospace industry needs dependable authority from the FAA and policymakers to continue to provide the highest level of service for aviation customers and meet the needs of the aviation industry and workforce.”
The focus of ARSA’s reauthorization campaign has been urging Congress to address the maintenance technician shortage by creating a new aviation workforce development program. On July 20, ARSA coordinated its own letter signed by 28 allied organizations asking leaders of the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee to include AMT grant program legislation in the Senate’s FAA reauthorization package.
The House FAA bill (H.R. 4), was approved on April 27 by a vote of 393 to 13, includes similar maintenance priorities to its Senate counterpart, but does not include the grant program. Notably, neither the House nor Senate bills currently contain language imposing unnecessary new regulatory mandates on repair stations, a testament to the effort that ARSA and its members have expended during the current reauthorization cycle improve awareness about how repair stations are contributing to the safest period in civil aviation.
“There is bipartisan support for moving the FAA bill forward now to ensure safety, economic benefits, regulatory reform, and international competitiveness through a long-term reauthorization bill for the FAA,” the letter concluded.
If you have questions or want to get more involved in ARSA’s legislative program, contact ARSA Executive Vice President Christian Klein at email@example.com.
To read the full letter, click here.
July 17, 2018
After being stalled for more than a year, legislation to reauthorize the FAA is back on the radar screen and may be on the Senate floor as early as next week. ARSA is calling on industry members to weigh in with lawmakers to support the association’s reauthorization priorities, including creating a new program to address the aviation maintenance technician shortage.
The Senate FAA bill (S. 1405), which will set the agency’s budget for at least the next three years, also includes important aviation policy directives sought by ARSA.
Specifically, the Senate bill would:
- Add “aviation maintenance” to stakeholders on the FAA’s new Certification & Oversight Advisory Committee.
- Direct the FAA to explore ways to enhance the value of repairman certificates, including making them portable.
- Direct the FAA to undertake a rulemaking to reinstate voluntary surrender of repair station certificates.
The House FAA bill (H.R. 4), which was approved on April 27 by a vote of 393 to 13, includes similar ARSA priorities. Notably, neither the House nor Senate bills currently contain language imposing unnecessary new regulatory mandates on repair stations, a testament to the effort that ARSA and its members have expended during the current reauthorization cycle improve awareness about how repair stations are contributing to the safest period in civil aviation.
The focus of ARSA’s reauthorization campaign has been urging Congress to address the maintenance technician shortage by creating a new aviation workforce development program. S. 2506 was introduced by Senators James Inhofe (R-Okla.), Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.), Jerry Moran (R-Ks.) and Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.) in March and now has 17 other Senate cosponsors. It authorizes $5 million per year for five years to provide grants of up to $500,000 to schools, businesses, unions and governmental entities that collaborate to pursue aviation maintenance workforce development strategies. Parallel legislation (H.R. 5701) was introduced in the House in June. Sixteen representatives have signed onto that bill.
ARSA is leading a coalition of more than 20 leading aviation organizations seeking to add S. 2506 to the Senate’s FAA bill when its considered. Given that the Senate might take up FAA reauthorization as early as the week of July 23, time is running out for ARSA members to weigh in with their lawmakers in support of the legislation.
If you’re concerned about the aviation technician shortage, there’s never been a more important time to weigh in with Congress. For complete instructions on how to contact your senators and representatives, draft emails and other information about the bill, go to ARSA’s workforce grant program action center.
If you have questions or want to get more involved in ARSA’s legislative program, contact ARSA Executive Vice President Christian Klein at firstname.lastname@example.org.
April 27, 2018
Christian A. Klein, ARSA executive vice president, issued the following statement in response to House passage of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (H.R. 4). The bill, which passed on a 393-13 vote, would extend the agency’s funding authority into 2023:
“The passage of this important legislation after years of delay is a welcome development. ARSA has long been urging Congress to ensure the FAA has the resources it needs to oversee the industry as efficiently and effectively as possible. We’re pleased that several of the association’s priorities are part of the final House bill, including language directing the Government Accountability Office [GAO] to examine aviation maintenance industry workforce issues and adding maintenance to the stakeholders included on the agency’s new Safety Oversight and Certification Advisory Committee. At the same time, we’re disappointed that some of our priority issues – including establishing a new aviation maintenance workforce training grant program, directing the FAA’s Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee to examine ways to improve repairman certificates and restoring the right to voluntarily surrender repair station certificates – were not included in the House legislation. We look forward to continuing to work with our allies in both the House and Senate to ensure that those priorities are added as Congress works out its final bill and enacting it into law as quickly as possible.”
April 17, 2018
After almost a year in limbo, FAA reauthorization legislation is finally on the move again on Capitol Hill. The FAA bill is important because it provides several years of budget authority for the agency and establishes policy priorities. The agency has been operating under a series of short-term extensions since the last multi-year bill expired in September of 2015.
The House of Representatives unveiled a revised bill on April 13 that, notably, does not include language to privatize the nation’s air traffic control (ATC) system. The issue had been a major sticking point in the House, pitting Transportation & Infrastructure Committee Chairman Bill Shuster (R-Penn.), most airlines and President Trump against Democrats, rural state Republicans, and business and general aviation communities. ATC reform is not addressed in the Senate bill. In the interest of moving the bill forward, Chairman Shuster has put the issue aside for now, clearing the way for House action his month.
Provisions important to ARSA are included in the new House bill, notably adding aviation maintenance representatives to FAA’s new Safety Oversight and Certification Advisory Committee and directing a new Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the aviation maintenance worker shortage. Not included are ARSA-supported provisions in the Senate bill restoring voluntary surrender for repair station certificates and tasking the FAA’s Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) to explore ways to enhance the value of repairman certificates.
ARSA is also working to include a provision to establish a new program to attract and train the next generation of aviation maintenance workers. The legislation would authorize $5 million dollars per year for a new grant program to incentivize collaboration between businesses, labor organizations, schools, and local governments to address the aviation technical workforce skills gap.
The workforce language was introduced as a stand-alone bill (S. 2506) in the Senate last month by Senators James Inhofe (R-Okla.), Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.), Jerry Moran (R-Kansas) and Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.). ARSA is leading a coalition including Boeing, FedEx, AAR, Airlines for America, Helicopter Association International, the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Association and the National League of Cities. A House companion bill is expected to be introduced this week and ARSA will be working to add it to the underlying FAA bill when it goes to the House floor the week of April 23.
For more information about ARSA’s legislative activities or become more involved in the effort to enact S. 2506, please contact ARSA Executive Vice President Christian A. Klein at email@example.com.
FAA Bill Maintenance Amendments Box Score
|ARSA Proposal||In House Bill||In Senate Bill|
|Adding “aviation maintenance” to stakeholders on new Certification & Oversight Advisory Committee||Yes||Yes – Amendment by Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) adopted by voice vote|
|Asking FAA to explore ways to enhance value of repairman certificates||No – ARSA is working to identify a sponsor||Yes – Amendment by Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) adopted by voice vote|
|Directing FAA to undertake rulemaking to reinstate voluntary surrender of repair station certificates||No – ARSA is working with Rep. Dan Webster (R-Fla.) to include in House bill||Yes – Amendment by Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) adopted by voice vote|
|Directing GAO to study causes, effects and solutions to aviation technician shortage||Yes||No – ARSA is working to identify sponsor|
|Creating grant program to support aviation maintenance workforce development initiatives||No – ARSA is working to identify sponsor||No – Sens. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.), Richard Blumenthal (D-Conn.), Jerry Moran (R-Kan.) & Maria Cantwell (D-Wash.) have introduced independent bill to be considered for inclusion in FAA legislation.|
March 27, 2018
Buried deep in the 2,149 page, $1.3 trillion appropriations bill signed by President Trump on March 23 was a provision extending the FAA’s operating authority through Sept. 30. The extension gives Congress six months to reauthorize the agency by enacting a new, multiyear FAA budget and policy bill.
The extension comes amid increased optimism that an FAA reauthorization process that has dragged on for years may finally be approaching conclusion. Both the House Transportation & Infrastructure and Senate Commerce Committees (which have jurisdiction over the process) passed bills last spring. However, the effort has been stalled over disagreements about privatizing air traffic control (in the House) and providing more flexibility for pilot training (in the Senate). With those issues resolved, there’s growing confidence that both chambers will move forward in the near future. While only minor modifications will be required to the Senate bill, the House bill will require substantial changes to compensate for the removal of ATC privatization language. Even so, there’s speculation that a bill could be on the House floor as early as late April.
The maintenance industry has a significant stake in the outcome of the FAA bill debate. In addition to providing financial resources for the agency and making changes to help improve the quality of FAA’s oversight, the legislation contains various amendments sought by ARSA, including ones to restore voluntary surrender for repair station certifications and add aviation maintenance as a stakeholder to the FAA’s new Certification & Oversight Advisory Committee. ARSA is also working to include several provisions to address the technician shortage in the industry, including language to enhance the value of repairman certificates and another to create a new aviation maintenance workforce development grant program.
It’s going to be a busy spring for ARSA and its members on Capitol Hill. To learn more about support ARSA’s lobbying on the aviation maintenance industry’s behalf, contact ARSA Executive Vice President Christian A. Klein at firstname.lastname@example.org.
September 29, 2017
There was some drama as things came down to the wire, but Congress ultimately did what everyone expected and voted Sept. 28 to extend the FAA’s current authorization for another six months.
Early in the week of Sept. 25, the House sent the Senate a short-term FAA authorization bill that included unrelated language to encourage the creation of private flood insurance markets. The flood provision drew bipartisan opposition from senators wanting to address the issue as part of a broader flood insurance debate. The Senate ultimately stripped the controversial language, passed the bill and sent it back to the House for quick approval before President Trump signed the bill into law.
The extension keeps FAA’s lights on through March 30, 2018 and buys more time for lawmakers to hash out the details of a longer-term FAA reauthorization bill. Congress’ efforts at long-term policy have been hampered in the House by disagreement over whether to spin off air traffic control responsibilities from the FAA and in the Senate over language to reform pilot training requirements.
ARSA members can get deeper insight into the reauthorization process in the “ARSA on the Hill” section of the hotline, including an update on the status of the five amendments proposed by the association. Direct queries on legislative matters may also be submitted via the Ask ARSA first! system.
September 25, 2017
House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee Chairman Bill Shuster (R-Pa.) has introduced legislation to keep the FAA operating for another six months. Under current law, the FAA’s budget authority expires on Sept. 30. House and Senate committees passed multi-year FAA reauthorization bills this summer but the legislation has not received floor consideration in either chamber.
As far as aviation policy goes, the House FAA extension is a “clean bill,” meaning that it simply extends authorization dates and doesn’t make any changes to current aviation policy. However, in the wake of recent hurricanes, the includes language aimed at strengthening flood insurance programs.
With the clock running down to Sept. 30, the FAA extension bill is expected to receive swift House and Senate consideration. Once the extension has been enacted, the focus will shift back to enacting a long-term FAA bill. In the House, Chairman Shuster is still working to round up votes to support his legislation, which has garnered opposition from the general aviation community because it would separate air traffic control functions from the FAA. The Senate bill does not include the ATC provision; however, Senate Minority Leaders Chuck Schumer (R-N.Y.) is blocking the bill over concerns about changes to pilot training requirements.
ARSA will continue its efforts to use the reauthorization process to address regulatory concerns and the aviation workforce skills gap (read below to refresh your memory on this work). To get more involved in ARSA’s advocacy, contact ARSA Executive Vice President Christian Klein.
June 30, 2017
On June 30, ARSA issued the following statement in response to recent congressional action on FAA reauthorization legislation. The House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee marked up and passed its bill on June 27 and the Senate Commerce, Science & Transportation did the same on June 29.
Both bills were amended to include provisions important to the aviation maintenance industry (see June 27 story below). The House and Senate committees adopted amendments sponsored by Sen. James Inhofe (R-Okla.) and Rep. Hank Johnson (D-Ga.) to add aviation maintenance to the list of stakeholders that will participate on the FAA’s new Certification & Oversight Advisory Committee. The House T&I Committee adopted an amendment offered by Reps. Cheri Bustos (D-Ill.), Bruce Westerman (R-Ark.) and Brenda Lawrence (D-Mich.) to request a Government Accountability Office report on the aviation technician shortage. The Senate Commerce Committee also adopted amendments offered by Sen. Inhofe to restore the right of repair stations to voluntarily surrender their certificates and explore making repairman certificates issued to mechanics portable from one employer to another.
“ARSA is very pleased by the significant progress that both the House and Senate made this past week on the FAA reauthorization front,” ARSA Executive Vice President Christian A. Klein said. “Reauthorization represents an important opportunity to make America’s aviation system more efficient, build upon the industry’s outstanding safety record and increase economic activity in our sector. Both the House and Senate bills go a long way towards achieving those goals, particularly by improving the certification process and encouraging international cooperation between the FAA and other civil aviation authorities.
“We especially appreciate Sen. Inhofe’s leadership in offering several amendments to the Senate bill to address the aviation maintenance industry skilled worker shortage and improve the regulatory environment for repair stations and we thank Reps. Hank Johnson, Cheri Bustos, Rob Woodall, Bruce Westerman, and Brenda Lawrence for offering aviation maintenance-related provisions in the House.”
In order to get a perspective from Sen. Inhofe’s aviation-rich home state, Klein reached out to J. Terrell Siegfried, assistant general counsel & corporate secretary of NORDAM, an industry-leading aviation maintenance company based in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ARSA member. Siegfried said:
“In proposing these amendments, Sen. Inhofe has once again demonstrated he is a true champion for the aviation maintenance industry, which employs close to 12,000 Oklahomans and 277,000 people nationwide. Oklahoma’s repair stations are fortunate to have a leader like Sen. Inhofe in Washington, D.C. looking out for their interests.”
June 27, 2017
It’s the busiest week for aviation policy on Capitol Hill in recent memory. The House Transportation & Infrastructure Committee marked up its FAA reauthorization bill on Tuesday and the Senate Commerce, Science & Transportation Committee is set to mark up its bill Thursday morning.
For the maintenance industry, the news is generally positive: At this point in neither bill includes language hostile to repair stations. In fact, amendments are being added to address the aviation maintenance industry technician shortage and improve the regulatory environment for repair stations.
Industry allies in Congress have proposed three amendments to address the skills gap. The first by Sen. Jim Inhofe (R-Okla.) and Rep. Hank Johnson (D-Ga.) would create a pilot program administered by the FAA to award grants to schools, governmental entities, and businesses that work together to improve technical education, create apprenticeship programs, help former military personnel transition to civilian aviation maintenance careers, and attract new talent to the industry (click here to view the House amendment). Johnson offered and then withdrew the amendment during markup due to concerns expressed by T&I Committee leaders about how to pay for the program. ARSA will work to add the language to the House bill prior to House passage.
The second amendment by Reps. Cheri Bustos (D-Ill.), Bruce Westerman (R-Ark.) and Brenda Lawrence (D-Mich.) would task the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to study causes, effects and solutions to the technician shortage (click here to view the House amendment). That amendment was unanimously approved by the committee as part of an en bloc amendment.
Finally, Sen. Inhofe is developing an amendment to start the process of making repairman certificates issued by the FAA portable. Under current rules, a repairman loses his or her certificate when he or she changes jobs and must reapply and be recommended for a new certificate by the next employer. Portability would make it easier for technicians to move between jobs, reduce bureaucratic inefficiency and make the certificate a more valuable professional credential, thereby encouraging more people to pursue it and aviation industry careers. ARSA will be working to get parallel language added to the House bill.
Inhofe also plans to propose an amendment to restore the right of repair stations to voluntarily surrender their repair station certificates like all other certificate holders. The FAA’s 2014 updates to part 145 added a requirement for “affirmative acceptance” by the agency of a surrendered certificate, but there is no defined process, no enumerated circumstances for acceptance or even an indication of whose decision it is. This creates considerable uncertainty for companies that wish to cease operations, merge or restructure.
In 2015, ARSA and several other aviation industry trade associations petitioned the FAA to restore the right to surrender. The agency denied the petition and has never acted on an official request for reconsideration. Inhofe’s proposed language would direct a rulemaking to restore the right to surrender while ensuring that surrender cannot be used by “bad actors” to avoid certificate action. Getting parallel voluntary surrender language in the House bill is a top ARSA priority.
Finally, Sen. Inhofe and Reps. Johnson and Rob Woodall (R-Ga.) are also trying to amend the bills to ensure repair stations have a seat on the FAA’s new Certification & Oversight Advisory Committee (click here to view the House amendment). The T&I Committee unanimously approved that proposal as part of an en bloc amendment.
Keep Moving Forward
Early success on a range of issues important to repair stations (and the absence at this point of hostile language) is a reflection of ARSA’s stepped up engagement on the Hill this year. Association members and staff have held close to 100 meetings both in Washington and at facilities back home. The association is now reaching out to members on a targeted basis to weigh in with key lawmakers. Those who have done so – or who will answer the call very soon – are providing a great service in amplifying the voice of the maintenance community.
Despite all the activity this week, the outlook for the FAA bills is still highly uncertain. There is considerable disagreement between House Republicans and Democrats and between the House and Senate over privatization of air traffic control (The House bill would privatize but the Senate bill wouldn’t). If lawmakers cannot reach consensus, it’s likely that Congress will pass another short-term extension and then return and reconsider FAA issues later this year or early next year.
ARSA’s position is that the FAA needs a long-term budget and policy blueprint and is urging lawmakers to enact a multi-year bill as soon as possible.
Stay tuned…there’s a lot to be done before the president signs an FAA bill into law.
May 16, 2017
As Congress begins the process of reauthorizing the FAA, ARSA is urging lawmakers not to punish the aviation maintenance industry because the agency has not yet finalized new rules for repair stations.
Recent FAA authorization laws have directed the agency to undertake rulemakings to extend drug and alcohol (D&A) testing to foreign repair stations and require pre-employment background investigations for all repair station employees performing safety-sensitive functions on air carrier aircraft. For various reasons, including the complexity of the issues and potential impact on thousands of small businesses, the FAA has yet to finalize the rules.
In a letter sent to the leaders of the House Transportation & Infrastructure and Senate Commerce, Science & Transportation Committees on May 15, ARSA urged lawmakers to give the FAA adequate time to complete the rulemakings. In 2008, Congress banned the FAA from issuing new foreign repair station certificates if the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) failed to issue repair station security rules. The subsequent ban lasted until the rules were issued in 2013, causing significant economic disruptions for airlines and maintenance companies – including many from the United States – wishing to open facilities abroad.
ARSA said that instituting a new ban on repair station certificates – foreign or domestic – would make it difficult for U.S. companies to tap into foreign markets, make it harder for U.S. air carriers to operate internationally, and potentially subject U.S. facilities to retaliation by foreign aviation authorities.
“Those who do not learn the lessons of history are doomed to repeat them,” ARSA Executive Vice President Christian Klein said in the letter. “Punishing industry would do nothing to motivate executive branch action but would instead undermine growth in a globally-competitive sector of the U.S. economy, undermine the FAA’s ability to pursue reciprocal acceptance of U.S. certifications abroad, and further jeopardize the U.S. aviation industry’s global leadership.”
The letter to House T&I Committee leaders can be viewed at: arsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ARSA-CongressionalDALetter-20170515.pdf
The letter to Senate Commerce Committee leaders can be viewed at: arsa.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/ARSA-SenateDALetter-20170515.pdf.
Bookmark this page for more updates as the reauthorization process continues. To catch up on what happened in the 114th Congress, visit: arsa.org/faa-reauthorization-2016.